Stud Book Authority of India

Guidelines - Identification of Horses

PROCESS OF FOAL REGISTRATION IN INDIA

Stage 1

A Notification of Birth (NOB) is received from the breeding establishment. This document is the initial document mentioning the colour, sex, date of birth, pedigree of the foal, etc.

This document is on most occasions prepared and signed by an authorised signatory of the breeding establishment, who may not necessarily be a Veterinarian.

The information received in the Notification of Birth is validated in conjunction with the covering dates and stallion information received from the breeder in the previous year and the Notifi cation of Birth is registered.

(Registration of the Notification of Birth signifies provisional registration of the foal)

Stage 2

A Certificate of Identity (COI) is issued by a Panel Veterinarian or an Authorised Veterinarian after the yearling is branded. The COI is compared to the Notification of Birth and observations, if any, are noted. The three categories in which these can be classifi ed are as under :-

(a) Discrepancies between the NOB and COI.

(b) Discrepancies between the diagram and the description in COI.

(c) Discrepancies within the description itself.

After these discrepancies are reconciled, the COI is registered.

In the meantime, hair samples of yearlings are collected and the parentage validation is done with DNA analysis.

(This completes the registration of the foal and thereafter a passport is prepared by SBAI for the yearling based on all the above collated data)

EXAMPLES OF BODY COLOURS

Bay


Brown


Chestunt


Grey


BODY COLOURS

General

1. The following list of body colours and markings is recommended as sufficient internationally. No other description is acceptable.

2. The principal body colours found in the horses are bay, brown, chestnut and grey. There can be certain horses described as cremello or buckskin, etc. However, these colours are not known to exist in India till date. However, if such colours are noticed, the identifying Veterinarians are requested to bring the cases to our attention before issuing a COI.

Bay

3. There is a reasonably clearly defi ned colour line between the black lower part of the legs and the general tan/brown colour of the upper legs and body. Mane and tail are black.

4. Based on past experience, it is also observed that Identifying Veterinarians are not particular about differentiating between the colour “bay” or “dk bay” and generally describe the colour as “bay” even if the foal is clearly a “dark bay”. This differentiation needs greater attention on the part of the identifying Veterinarian.

Chestnut

5. The coat is reddish or yellowish brown. The mane and tail are chestnut and may be lighter or darker than the body colour.

Grey

6. The body coat is a mixture of black and white hair, with the skin black. With increasing age, the coat grows lighter in colour. As there are variations according to age and season, all of them should be described by the general term ‘grey’.

7. A majority of grey horses are not grey as young foals. Such foals should be described with their predominant coat colour (bay or chestnut, as the case may be) in the Certifi cate of Identity. However, any white hair on the body must be mentioned in the narration. Veterinarians can mention “may turn grey” for such horses.

8. It must be noted that a grey foal must have at least one grey parent and this must be verifi ed by the identifying Veterinarian.

COAT COLOUR AND GENETIC LAWS OF HEREDITYIN THOROUGHBRED HORSES

9. The internationally accepted coat colour principles are well-known to Veterinarians and are being reproduced below :-

(a) a chestnut sire and a chestnut dam must produce a chestnut foal, and

(b) a grey foal must have atleast one grey parent.

POINT OF HORSES





MARKINGS

Variations

10. The variations in markings of horses are infi nite and cannot be accurately described by a limited number of terms without certain arbitrary groupings. In some cases, a combination of recommended terms (see further pages) needs to be employed. It is stressed that all COI should, in conformity with later remarks, consist of a narration, accompanied by a sketch on which the markings are indicated accurately. All marks of identification should be recorded.

11. Whole coloured horses. When a horse does not have any white markings, a minimum of five natural identifi cation marks must be described. These must not include acquired marks such as brands, tattoos, microchips, etc. Grey horses or horses which are in the process of turning grey must be considered as whole-coloured horses.

12. Whorls below the forelock and stifl e whorls should not be counted in the five natural markings. In cases where a minimum of fi ve natural markings cannot be located, an appropriate remark must be endorsed in the “Remarks” column as “Only …… natural markings noticed”.

White Markings

13. Any white marking on the horse must be outlined in the sketch in red, using a ball point pen and lightly hatched in with diagonal lines so that any whorl contained therein is not wiped out. A few white hair lacking a distinct outline are indicated by a few short lines.



Mixed. To be used to describe a white marking which contains varying amounts of hair of the general body colour. Described as mixed in the narration and drawn as any other white mark : 

Bordered. To be used where any marking is circumscribed by a mixed border, e.g., ‘bordered star’, ‘bordered stripe’. Drawn as : 

Flesh Marks.Patches where the pigment of the skin is absent should be described as ‘flesh marks’. Drawn as : 

Bordered. If a fl esh mark is circumscribed by a mixed border it should be Flesh Marks. described as a ‘bordered fl esh mark’. Drawn as : 

HEAD MARKINGS

STAR.Any white mark on the forehead is defi ned as a star. A star is described or denoted by its size, shape, position and type.

Size. The acceptable terminology is large, medium and small.

Shape. To describe the shape, a geometric (triangular, ovalish, roundish etc.) shape is preferred to a descriptive (pear shaped, crown shaped, funnel shaped, top shaped, leaf shaped etc). If geometric description is not possible, it should be described as “irregular”.

Position. With respect to eye level. e.g. above / below or at eye level.

Type. e.g. bordered, diffused, fleshy, etc.

If the markings on the forehead consist only of few white hair,it should be so described and NOT as a star.

14.STRIPE. A stripe is a narrow white marking below the forehead running down the bridge of the nose in most cases and is defined by its size, whether connected to the star or not, its extent and description.

Size. The acceptable terminology is ‘broad’, ‘medium’ and ‘thin’.

Connected / Not Connected. If the stripe is connected to a star, it must be so mentioned, if it is not connected then, the starting point of the stripe must be mentioned.

Extent. The point at which the stripe terminates must be mentioned.

Description. Descriptive points must include fi ner aspects to indicate parallel sides, jagged, bordered, fleshy, turning, slanting, wavy. In case of bay/black or chestnut spots are noticed within the stripe, they must be described.

An interrupted stripe is one which is broken within its length. When a stripe is separated from a star or there is no star present, it should not be described as an interrupted stripe and the starting and ending point of this stripe must be defined.

15.Blaze. A white marking covering almost the whole of the forehead between the eyes and extending beyond the width of the bridge of the nose on to the face and usually to the muzzle. Any variations in the direction and termination should be stated.

16.Snip. An isolated white marking situated between or in the region of the nostrils. Its size, position and intensity should be specified.

17. Lip Markings. Should be accurately described, whether embracing the whole or a portion of either lip.

18.Muzzle Markings. Where the white embraces both lips and extends to the region of the nostrils.

EXAMPLES OF MARKINGS

HEAD



FEW HAIR TO THE LEFT OF MIDLINE ABOVE UPPER EYE LEVEL.

A MEDIUM-SIZED IRREGULAR STAR WITH A CONNECTED STRIPE ENDING IN MID-NASAL BRIDGE. A WHORL TO THE RIGHT OF MIDLINE AT UPPER EYE LEVEL. A SMALL FLESH MARK JUST BELOW LOWER EYE LEVEL.

A MEDIUM-SIZED IRREGULAR STAR ENCLOSING A MIDLINE WHORL AT UPPER EYE LEVEL. A DISCONNECTED STRIPE COMMENCING IN MID-NASAL BRIDGE AND ENDING BETWEEN BOTH NOSTRILS.




A MEDIUM-SIZED IRREGULAR BORDERED STAR WITH A CONNECTED BORDERED STRIPE SLANTING SLIGHTLY TO THE RIGHT AND ENDING JUST ABOVE BOTH THE NOSTRILS. A MIDLINE WHORL ABOVE UPPEREYE LEVEL.

A MEDIUM-SIZED IRREGULAR STAR WITH A CONNECTED BROAD STRIPE NARROWING AND ENDING BETWEEN BOTH THE NOSTRILS ENCLOSING A FLESH MARK. UPPER LIP PARTLY FLESH MARKED. A WHORL TO THELEFT OF MIDLINE AT UPPER EYE LEVEL.

A MEDIUM-SIZED IRREGULAR STAR WITH A CONNECTED BROAD STRIPE NARROWING FROM MID-NASAL BRIDGE, BROADENING BETWEEN NOSTRILS ENCLOSING A BORDERED FLESH MARK AND ENDING BELOW. A MIDLINE WHORL AT LOWER EYE LEVEL.


WHORLS

General

19. Whorls are formed by changes in direction of the fl ow of hair. They may appear at different parts of a horse and may be classifi ed as simple, tufted, linear, crested, feathered, etc. However, with a view to have simple terminology, the following are the categories under which they should be grouped:-

Simple. A focal point from which the hair diverge. This is denoted as ‘x’ in the diagram.

Linear. Two opposing sweeps of hair meet from opposite directions along a line, with or without forming a crest. The term ‘linear whorl‘ is used in the narration to define such whorls and is denoted by ‘------’ in the diagram.

Feathered. Two sweeps of hair diverge along a line but the direction of fl ow of each sweep is at an angle to the other so that together they form a feathered pattern. The term ‘feathered whorl’ is used in the narration to defi ne such whorls and is denoted by ‘x ----’ in the diagram.

20.Head Whorls. The position of head whorls should be clearly specified with reference to midline and eye level, to white markings and to each other if two or more occur in close proximity.

21.Neck Whorls. The crest of the neck is divided into three parts - anterior, mid and posterior. Any reference to the position of whorls should be described as such and by their location. When whorls on the neck are described as being on either side in the same segment, its inter se position must be mentioned. If there is no whorl on either side of the crest, this must be specifically mentioned, since this is not normal.

22.Whorls in the front (trachea/jugular furrow). In describing the position of the whorls on the trachea/jugular furrow, the neck should be divided into three segments i.e. “upper”, “middle” and “lower”. Whorls on the neck and at the throat latch should be described in the column “ Body ” and not in the column “ Head ”. Throat whorls must be marked only on the Ventral diagram.

Whorls on the jugular furrow are usually visible only from the side and as such, they should be marked only in the side view diagrams and not on ventral view diagrams.

It is noticed that markings on ventral side of the neck are being missed out despite a Ventral View diagram having been provided. Panel Veterinarians must mark this diagram.

There is plenty of confusion in marking and describing whorls in the ventral view i.e. left and right is often interchanged. Identifying Veterinarians are advised to be careful.

23. Whorls found in any part of the body must be described in the narration and also be drawn appropriately in the diagrams.

Whorls on the stifle, forelock.

24. Whorls on stifl e folds and forelock are visible on almost all horses and as such, should not be taken into account as natural markings, even if there are no white markings found.

LIMB MARKINGS

Whorls on the limbs.

25. Whorls, if any, on the limbs should be described in the appropriate limb column and not in the column “Body”.

26. Division of pastern/fetlock should be made as lower/upper pastern/fetlock. Smaller fractions like one-third, two-third, etc are not acceptable.

27. Division of the cannon/shank should be made maximum into three parts only - One-third cannon, half cannon and two-third cannon. Division of cannon / shank into more than three parts is not acceptable.

In describing the white markings and whorls on the limbs, use of simple terminology like inside, outside, in front, at the back, etc. is required.

Hooves.

28. The hoof colour must be mentioned if it is anything other than black. When mentioned, it should also be marked accordingly on the diagram. Acceptable method of showing it in the diagram in red, is as under :-

OTHER MARKINGS

29.The ‘Prophet’s Thumb Mark. This is a muscular depression seen usually in the neck, but sometimes in the shoulders and occasionally in the hindquarters. It should be indicated on the sketch by a triangular mark ‘ ‘ and described in the narration.

30.Wall-eye. This term should be used exclusively where there is a lack of pigmentation in the iris, either partial or complete.

Acquired Markings.

31. Brand marks, tattoo marks, saddle marks, bridle marks, girth marks, permanent bandage marks, surgical scars, opacity of the eye, etc fall into this category. Whenever, such markings are noticed they should be described in the narration and also drawn appropriately in the diagram.

Brand marks

32. Brands are usually found on either saddles, shoulders and hind quarters. Grey horses or horses turning grey must be hot branded only.

33. The brands must be checked with the proposed brand marks from the Notification of Birth. In case of a change between the brands proposed in the Notification of Birth and the ones actually acquired on the horse, a suitable remark must be made in the COI.

34. The position of the brand mark shown in the diagram should correspond to its actual position on the body.

35. The brand marks should be drawn as observed and not what it ought to have been. If the ‘0’ appears as ‘6’, it should be shown as such.

36. Brand marks of horses cold branded should be shown in RED in the diagram.

37. Any overbranding or faint branding should be clearly amplifi ed with a remark.

Microchipping

38. As mentioned earlier, microchipping of horses is an added identifi cation tool, which is becoming increasingly popular. Most of the recently imported horses, carry a microchip.

39. In India, microchipping is a mandatory requirement for registration of foals. With effect from the foal-crop of 2012, microchipping is being carried out by Panel Veterinarians at Breeding Establishments.

40. However, it is ESSENTIAL at any age for horses being exported. The Sr. Veterinary Officers of the Turf Authorities of India are also authorised to carry out microchipping for racehorses.

41. Microchips are usually found in the middle-third segment of the left crest. Universal readers, capable of reading ISO 11784/5 chips are available in the market and sooner or later, usage of microchip and readers will become necessary. When a microchip has been located and read by a reader, it should be indicated as shown below. All Certificates of Identity for an imported horse must have their microchip numbers mentioned on the form.

Recap

42. Description should be kept short and in simple language. Do not over describe or fill in factual information not supported by documentary evidence.

43. Avoid the use of abbreviations and numerals to denote fractions in the limbs.

44. Commonly mis-spelt words include canon (for cannon), hairs (for hair), crecentric (for crescent shaped), pole (for poll), stripped (for striped), etc. Sufficient caution may please be exercised.

45. Ensure speedy reply to queries raised by the SBAI so that the process of registration is not held up.

46. Ensure that the postal address and contact details are correctly mentioned on the Certificates of Identity.

EXAMPLES OF MARKINGS

LIMBS


R.F. : CANNON WHITE UPTO HOCK. HOOF PARTICOLOURED.

L.H. : TWO-THIRD CANNON WHITE. HOOF WHITE.

R.H. : CANNON WHITE UPTO HOCK. HOOF WHITE.

L.F. : BOTH BULBS OF HEEL WHITE. HOOF PARTICOLOURED.

R.F. : FETLOCK WHITE. HOOF WHITE.

L.H. : ONE-THIRD CANNON WHITE, EXTENDING UPTO TWO-THIRD CANNON INSIDE AND AT THE BACK. HOOF PARTICOLOURED.

R.H. : PASTERN WHITE, EXTENDING TO FETLOCK INSIDE AND AT THE BACK. HOOF WHITE.


EXAMPLE OF CERTIFICATE OF IDENTITY

R.W.I.T.C., LTD.
STUD BOOK AUTHORITY OF INDIA
CERTIFICATE OF IDENTITY
IMPORTANT
Ensure written description and diagram tally White markings to be shown in RED Mark whorls by an “X” and describe in detail
Colour Sex Date of Birth Sire Dam
CHESTNUT COLT 20 FEB 2010 CARNIVAL DANER[GB] CLASSIC STUDY

Head

A LARGE IRREGULAR STAR CONTAINING A WHORL TO THE RIGHT OF MIDLINE AT UPPER EYE LEVEL. ANOTHER WHORL TO THE LEFT OF MIDLINE AT EYE LEVEL. A CONNECTED VERY THIN STRIPE DEVIATING TO THE RIGHT OF MIDLINE AND ENDING IN A LARGE IRREGULAR BORDERED FLESH MARK BETWEEN BOTH NOSTRILS AND INTO RIGHT NOSTRIL. UPPER LIP PARTLY. LOWER LIP PARTLY TO THE LEFT. A WHORL ON EITHER SIDE OF MANDIBLE.


A WHORL ON OUTER SIDE OF FOREARM. LOWER PASTERN. HOOF PARTICOLOURED.
A WHORL ON INNER AND OUTER SIDE OF FOREARM. ONE-THIRD CANNON. HOOF WHITE.
FETLOCK WHITE, RISING TO ONE-THIRD CANNON INSIDE AND AT THE BACK. HOOF PARTICOLOURED.
HALF CANNON WHITE. HOOF WHITE.
Body A WHORL ON EITHER SIDE OF CREST, LEFT IN ANTERIOR THIRD NECK AND RIGHT IN MIDDLE THIRD NECK, BOTH FEATHERING ANTERIORLY. A WHORL AT THE THROAT. A WHORL IN MID TRACHEA FEATHERING DOWNWARDS. A WHORL ON RIGHT SIDE OF CHEST AND BUTTOCK. A PROPHETS THUMB MARK IN LOWER LEFT JUGULAR FURROW.
Acquired LEFT SADDLE - 21     RIGHT SADDLE - 0     RIGHT QUARTER - DM
Remarks L.H. HOOF IS PARTICOLOURED AND NOT WHITE AS MENTIONED IN THE NOTIFICATION OF BIRTH.

Signature of Panel Veterinarian: Name:
Date: Address:
Place:

EXAMPLE OF CERTIFICATE OF IDENTITY

R.W.I.T.C., LTD.
STUD BOOK AUTHORITY OF INDIA
CERTIFICATE OF IDENTITY
IMPORTANT
Ensure written description and diagram tally White markings to be shown in RED Mark whorls by an “X” and describe in detail
Colour Sex Date of Birth Sire Dam
BAY (MTG) COLT 20 JUN 2010 DECADO[IRE] MYSTIC RIVER

Head

A LARGE IRREGULAR BORDERED STAR CONTAINING A WHORL TO THE LEFT OF MIDLINE ABOVE UPPER EYE LEVEL. ANOTHER WHORL ON MIDLINE AT EYE LEVEL. A WHORL ON RIGHT SIDE OF CHEEK. ANOTHER WHORL ON RIGHT SIDE OF MANDIBLE. A DISCONNECTED THIN BORDERED STRIPE COMMENCING IN UPPER THIRD NASAL BRIDGE AND ENDING IN A MEDIUM-SIZED IRREGULAR BORDERED FLESH MARK BETWEEN BOTH NOSTRILS. LOWER LIP FLESH MARKED EXTENDING UPTO CHIN.


BOTH BULBS OF HEEL WHITE. HOOF PARTICOLOURED.
ONE-THIRD CANNON WHITE. HOOF WHITE.
PASTERN WHITE, RISING TO FETLOCK PARTLY AT THE BACK. HOOF PARTICOLOURED.
TWO-THIRD CANNON WHITE, RISING TO HOCK INSIDE. HOOF WHITE.
Body A WHORL ON EITHER SIDE OF CREST IN ANTERIOR THIRD NECK, BOTH AT THE SAME LEVEL. ANOTHER WHORL ON RIGHT SIDE OF CREST IN POSTERIOR THIRD NECK. A WHORL IN MID NECK BELOW THE CREST ON LEFT SIDE. A JUGULAR WHORL ON RIGHT SIDE IN MID THIRD. A WHORL IN UPPER THIRD TRACHEA. ANOTHER WHORL IN LOWER THIRD TRACHEA, FEATHERING UPWARDS.
Acquired LEFT SADDLE - CHS      RIGHT SADDLE - 102
Remarks NIL.

Signature of Panel Veterinarian: Name:
Date: Address:
Place:

EXAMPLE OF CERTIFICATE OF IDENTITY

R.W.I.T.C., LTD.
STUD BOOK AUTHORITY OF INDIA
CERTIFICATE OF IDENTITY
IMPORTANT
Ensure written description and diagram tally White markings to be shown in RED Mark whorls by an “X” and describe in detail
Colour Sex Date of Birth Sire Dam
BAY (MTG) COLT 11 MAR 2010 HURRICANE STATE[USA] ALFORA

Head

A MIDLINE WHORL AT EYE LEVEL.


NO WHITE MARKINGS.
NO WHITE MARKINGS.
NO WHITE MARKINGS.
NO WHITE MARKINGS.
Body A WHORL ON EITHER SIDE OF CREST IN MIDDLE THIRD NECK, BOTH AT THE SAME LEVEL. A PROPHETS THUMB MARK IN LOWER LEFT JUGULAR FURROW.
Acquired LEFT SADDLE - 6 RIGHT SADDLE - 0 RIGHT RIGHT QUARTER - SG
Remarks ONLY FOUR NATURAL MARKINGS NOTICED.

Signature of Panel Veterinarian: Name:
Date: Address:
Place:
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